Saturday, March 25, 2017

Abstract and Floral Designs of E.A.Seguy - Part I
Art Essay

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Introduction
Whether you are engaged in creating ArtCloth, Art Quilts or Wearable Art you my find yourself becoming a scavenger for ideas in terms of subject matter, patterns or image making. Of course you may slavishly copy someone else's artistic constructs, but most artists are too egotistic to slavishly follow another. Most likely you will interpret Piet Mondrian in your own voice as Jane Dunnewold has done or let the markings of Rauschenberg affect your markings as is evident in some of Joan Schulze's Art Quilts. Whatever approach you take, be sure you do it in your own creative style.

Joan Schulze, The Angel Equation.
Technique: Silk and cotton fabrics, paper; appliquéd, laminated, painted, pieced, and printed; machine quilted.
Size: 144.8 x 142.2 cm.

In France there has been a long and distinguished tradition of finely printed folios of designs for various technical purposes issued by artists and designers. The images that are given below come from two such publications by celebrated designer E.A. Seguy. The first publication - Suggestions pour Etoffes et Tapis, 60 Motifs en couleur was published by the Parisian firm Ch. Massin of rue des Ecoles. The second - Floréal, Designs et Coloris nouveaux - appeared under the imprint of the publisher Calavas. Both are dated to ca. 1925 and both represent the finest printing technique of the day, being carried out in the stencil process best known by the French term pochoir.

Seguy's career in the production of grand design books was a long and distinguished one, and as early as 1901-3 he had produced the series of sixty plates which appeared in Les Fleurs et lemurs Applications decorative in two volumes in the Librairie des Arts décoratifs. This publication was clearly inspired by the work of the influential designer Grasset whose own volumes La Plant et sea Applications ornamentals set the pattern for such an approach to the design process in the Art Nouveau period. Enjoy!


Abstract and Floral Designs of E.A.Seguy
The following designs are a selection drawn from the publication Suggestions pour Etoffes et Tapes.

From Plate 1.

From plate 2.

From plate 2.

From Plate 3.

From Plate 4.

From Plate 4.

From Plate 4.

From Plate 5.

From Plate 6.

From Plate 6.


Reference
[1]S. Calloway, Abstract and Floral Designs - E.A. Seguy, Bracken Books, London (1988).

Saturday, March 18, 2017

Make Lace Not War - Part II
ArtCloth Exhibition

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Preamble
For your convenience I have added a link to the other post in this series.

Make Lace Not War - Part I

Make Lace Not War - Part III

Make Lace Not War - Part II

Jane Bowden
Artist's Statement: My grandmother's family was from a small village in the United Kingdom known for its wool production. A part of me, a part I like to think of as inherited, just seemed to know intuitively how to knit. It felt as if I only had to be shown a stitch once and I could do it. It seems now that it was natural and inevitable to combine my craft and jewellery skills, but at the time it was very sub-conscious. The first piece I ever wove was a brooch. The fine metal wires seemed to lend themselves to weaving. The form of each woven work builds from an underlying structure that due to the nature of weaving is still discernible beneath the surface. The rhythm of the weaving process and the surface texture and pattern echoes lace and lace-making techniques.

Lace for May.
Description: Bangle: handwoven sterling silver, titanium and gold.
Size: 50mm x 110mm x 95 mm.

Michaela Bruton
Artist's Statement: This work investigates the illusory possibilities of repetitive line, through traditional filigree techniques. It examines how movement and rhythm can be generated through repetitive patterning, and whether this can create an illusion of line in otherwise inanimate forms. The essence of time and handmade processes is reflected through works that pursue repetitious detailing. For this work I have investigated 18th century Chinese filigree specifically for its ability to capture and claim space. In contemporary times, filigree has survived as a folk art and in manufacturing of souvenirs. In this context, this medium is associated with lost craft traditions and mass reproductions. Referencing traditional techniques with materials and applications unorthodox to this process allows me to create unique three-dimensional forms that are reminiscent of delicate lace. In part, the results remain embedded in their cultural context, whilst also identifying a cultural statement about the present.

#3, Silver Wire.
Description: Neckpiece: filigree technique using sterling silver wire.
Size: 90mm x 260 mm.

Melissa Cameron
Artist's Statement: "Blue Tin Set" is part of my "Strung Planes Series". Each piece begins as a single plane, cut into a series of precise patterns, whose shapes are constructed with tools of Euclidean geometry - translation, rotation and reflection. They utilize replication of forms at shifted scale, using uniform scaling as well as morphological scaling - otherwise known as dilation and erosion. They also exploit the principles of fractal geometry as seen in the repetition of lines and forms at varying scales throughout a single work. The concentric layers are then strung together, held in dynamic tension. A frail line of steel thread connects the layers while simultaneously holding them apart.

Blue Tin Set.
Description: Pin and brooch: hand sawn, assembled and finished using recycled tin, sterling silver fixings, heat-treated steel, stainless steel cable, surgical steel wire.
Size: 75mm x 75mm x 15mm (brooch); 45mm x 45mm x 25mm (pin).

Stephen Gallagher
Artist's Statement: I am a jeweller with a focus on Elizabethan surface decoration. I adapt the textile motifs and embellishments of the era - from existing portraits and objects - to demonstrate how the past continues to be relevant to contemporary craft and design. By employing modern materials, I translate my findings into decorative artefacts which are a fusion of the contemporary with the historical. I am drawn to the condition of surviving items, the Renaissance 'bling' that is held in major collections throughout the world. It is the damaged, the unfinished, the unmounted, the detached or missing that intrigues me more. What is left is the sense of the original, giving an illusion to a space that needs to be filled by one's imagination.

Aradian Brooch.
Description: Brooch: synthetic polymer-silicone is extruded through embroidered stainless steel mesh; materials include silver, pure gold, paint, cotton, crystal, amethyst, ametrine, glass and pearls.
Size: 143mm x 145mm x 72mm.

Dalya Israeli
Artist's Statement: Growing up in Jerusalem I spent many hours walking through the markets and looking through the treasures on the streets of the Old City, a place where three religions live side-by-side. I wanted to create an object that looks like a religious item without knowing which religion or what it's for. It could be used by Jews, Christians and Muslims and it looks like it has been used for many years. Lace can give you the feeling of an 'aged' object. That idea symbolises my wish - that people will be connected and respect each other despite their differences and different religious beliefs, and can coexist in a land that is important for all, Israel. I wanted to design a mysterious object by creating spaces inside the object that you cannot see through clearly, while you feel there is something underneath the surface or inside it. Peeking through lace creates mystery.

My Wish.
Description: Pendant: Cast in an 18 carat gold, sutured together with two gold beads hung on a chain; ring cast in 18 carat gold, set with six emeralds.
Size: 450mm x 17mm x 17mm (pendant); 22mm x 20mm (ring).

Bethany Linton
Artist's Statement: I am a fourth generation silversmith. My professional practice is built on a sense of honour and obligation in learning the craft developed by my father, grandfather and great-grandfather. This connection through shared labor provides the opportunity to reflect upon their philosophies and beliefs. One shared value is a profound respect for the Australian landscape. This is evident in the meticulous landscapes painted by my great-grandfather, my grandfather's delicate carved sterling silver motifs that celebrate the beauty of Australian wildflowers, and my own works referencing wildflowers and landscape forms. These works incorporate uniquely Australian motifs, for example the collar in this collection depicts Eupphrasia Arguta, a West Australian wildflower listed as extinct. This flower, a tiny delicate blossom, is insignificant and not particularly striking. Its loss could be easily be overlooked. For me it speaks about fragility and impermanence.

Heel to Throat.
Description: Roella cuff, Deathadder cuff and Euphrasia argues collar: hand-cut and formed anodised titanium with hinges and decorative elements handmade in sterling silver.
size: 100mm x 100mm x 70mm (largest cuff); 95mm x 190mm x 90mm(collar).

Vivienne Martin
Artist Statement: Looking at my over-familiar surroundings, I wished to see it with new eyes and a heightened sensitivity, in order to reveal the invisible in the familiar. My interest in sensory experiences, namely sight and touch, aims to encourage a new, richer awareness and appreciation for one's love, everyday surroundings. Through a sensitive and intuitive approach to materials, I created jewellery with sculptural, delicate, lace-like qualities that has a striking visual and tactile sensation.

Haptic.
Description: Neckpiece non-precious fine wire, manipulated and embroidered nylon.
Size: 480mm x 380mm x 30mm.

Wendy Ramshaw
Artist's Statement: Magnificent lace collars adorn the clothing in many grand portraits of the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries. The Victoria and Albert Museum (London) has collections containing marvellous examples of the art of lace making. Petrified lace is inspired by an example of Spanish lace made in the 17th century. I have imagined that lace - so soft and delicate, a magical material - might be reinvented in a harder and stiffer state to be worn in a different way. My "Collar of Petrified Lace" still performs the same function as the original wondrous material: the ornamentation of clothing. It is a reminder of the glorious lace of the past, enhancing and elevating its wearer.

Collar of Petrified Lace.
Description: Two collars to be worn together; cut stainless steel, powder coated.
Size: 300mm (diameter) each.

Lenka Suchanek
Artist's Statement: I fell in love with Chantilly lace at first sight. I love its irregular free flowing patterns and shadings of fine black silk. I love the feminine beauty and sensuality of the designs. In my own work, Chantilly lace continues to be the most difficult technique. The traditional patterns were designed for extremely fine silk, and it is a true challenge to adapt them for metalwork.

The bee design was inspired by the Alencon lace commission by Emperor Napoleon I on the occasion of his marriage to Marie Louise in 1810. It featured the golden bee, one of the emblems of France.

Chantilly Necklace.
Description: Bobbin lace using black enamelled copper wire with Swarovski crystals; centrepiece made in gold-plated wire.
Size: 250mm x 480mm x 30mm.

Robin Wells
Artist Statement: Inspiration for this work initially came from finding some of my mother's old photo albums, in which she had pressed leaves and flowers collected on a road trip around Australia in the 1950s.

The leaves and flowers were still perfectly formed, but incredibly fragile. Some had developed a translucent lace-like quality. I wanted to embody this quality in Flora Memento, to convey the fragile situation of endangered native plants today. In my own garden I have begun planting inly native species, including endangered varieties, which has fuelled an even greater compulsion to make work that reflects this keen interest. Flora Memento is a neckpiece to evoke a reflection on Western Australia's fragile native plant species, water shortages and urban sprawl.

Flora Memento.
Description: Neckpiece etched and hand saw pierced sterling silver sheet hammered to create hollow floral designs. Size: The largest piece has a 18 carat yellow gold flower 2300mm in diameter.

Alison Wheeldon
Artist Statement: I grew up in rural Australia in a beautiful stark landscape. Visual images of couture culture felt so removed from this country life. it was in this landscape that my father's mother created handmade lace. The pieces were delicate, precious and made with great skill. Her art appeared to be a celebration of femininity, dedication and love.

With my work I aim firstly to celebrate my grandmother's life and the traditions of craft within our family, and secondly to create jewellery for a world other than my own - one of opulence and high fashion.

I discovered a casting technique that could capture delicate and fragile pieces of lace and transform them into the more lasting materials of gold and silver. This technique offers me a way of uniting my passion of fine art, fashion and traditional jewellery and is also, in many ways, an experiment in preservation.

Lacqueus
Description: Necklace: cast lace with 18 carat yellow gold, fine silver, onyx, natural pink sapphires, natural rubies and synthetic rubies.
Size: 300mm x 350mm x 10mm.


Reference
[1] Make Lace Not War, Powerhouse Publishing, Sydney (2011).

Saturday, March 11, 2017

Tatting
Art Review

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Introduction
Tatting is a form of knotting which is known by various names throughout the world. In the East, it is quite simply and literally known as "makeup" or "shuttle". The Italians, however, are far more poetic in their terminology and refer to tatting either as "occhi" meaning "eyes" or "chicchierimo" a word possibly derived from the Italian verb "chqiacchierare" which means to "gossip". Indeed the lace like work does often appear eye shaped and possibly women did traditionally gossip while they tatted. To the French it is called "frivolité - a delightful reflection of the widespread popular enjoyment this craft has long provided. According to the Oxford dictionary the origin of the English word "tatting" is unknown.

Tatting was widely practiced in the courts of the 18th Century in Europe.

This portrait of the Duchess of Albemarle was painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723 - 1792) shows her tatting.

Many of the charming and decorative shuttles date from the 18th Century are now valuable museum pieces. One, for example, is of fine wrought steel in the form of flowers; others are known to have been made from mother-of-pearl or rock-crystal set with precious stones; while some are gold and others are elaborately enamelled.

An ornate gold and enamel shuttle made by J.J. Barriére of Paris in 1769.

Although many beautiful antique shuttles survived today, very few examples of actual tatting remain as illustrations of this delicate art. We do know that two primary reasons for tatting was to decorate clothing and even to form household items such as complete curtains. Designs were restricted to the working of simple straight lines, but today with a tatting revival, numerous effects are possible through the use of larger shuttles and various threads such as mercerised cotton, linen and silk.

Tattered top for wedding dress.


Basic Materials and Equipment for Tatting
You will need at least one tatting shuttle if not two. A thread with a firm twist to it. A small hook for joining. The latter sometimes comes with the shuttle but if not a fine crochet hook will do.

Clover shuttles.

In the middle of the shuttle there is a hole. To attach the thread to the shuttle, run the thread through the hole and you can either tie it to the post with a simple knot or pull enough thread out to hold onto the end while you wind. To thread a Clover shuttle you wind the thread around the shuttle. As you do, the shuttle will click each time the thread passes through the ends.The thread should not extend beyond the shuttle edges as this will prevent it from running smoothly.

Additionally, Clover shuttles have a long pointed end, which can help with joining rings and chains together. You will want to have a small crochet hook on hand to help you with joins though, because sometimes the pick just does not work for pulling thread through.

Hold the shuttle in your strongest hand (right hand for right handed people), gradually letting out the thread as required. Form the knots with your other hand (left for right handed people). Note: which hand you use for what purpose is your choice - try making the half stitch (see below) with one choice and then reverse your choice to determine what combination suits you the best!



Basic Stitches
The Half Stitch
The"Half Stitch" requires three actions. Release from the shuttle an end of about 51 cm or 20 inches. Hold the end to it with your left hand between thumb and index finger and take the thread over the back of the remaining three fingers and back under them to between the thumb and index finger again, thus forming a ring. Spread the fingers out to enlarge the ring.


Throw the thread from the shuttle into a loose loop over the top of the left hand and pass the shuttle from underneath, up through the ring and loop from right to left.



The next movement is very important because if it is not made correctly the work will lock and the stitches will not run as freely as they should. Lower the middle finger on the left hand to loosen the ring. Tug the shuttle to the right so that the loop is transferred from being formed by the shuttle thread to being formed by the ring thread around the shuttle thread. Eventually the procedure will become instinctive but this is where beginners most often make mistakes.

Raise the middle finger of the left hand to tighten the stitch, sliding it along the shuttle thread until it is in position. Hold it in place with the thumb and index finger of the left hand.



The Josephine knot (see below) is formed by making several half stitches, slipping the ring off the left hand and pulling the shuttle thread so that the stitches form a ring. The size of the Josphine knot depends on how many half stitches are worked.



Double Stitch
There are two stages to this knot - the first being the "half stitch", which we have already discussed. The second is, in fact, the same movement but worked in the opposite direction, which locks with the first.



With the right hand, pass the shuttle through the loop on the left hand downward from left to right. Tug the shuttle thread as before to transfer the stitch from the shuttle thread to the ring thread, then draw this stitch up against the first "half stitch" to lock.



Rings
Make several double stitches. Remove the ring from the left hand and draw up as for the Josephine knot.

Picots
Make a double stitch. Leave a space of about 0.5 cm (0.25 inches), then make a second double stitch. Draw the two double stitches together so that the thread between the arches forms a picot. The size of the picot is determined by the length of the space between two knots.



Joining the Rings
Rings are joined at a picot. Usually a ring will have a picot at the top and at each side. Make the second ring just before the first picot. Insert the hook through the picot of the previous ring, draw the ring thread through to form a loop and hold it in the thumb and index finger of the left hand. Pass the shuttle through the loop and draw up the thread. Make the second half of a double stitch to lock the join. The join takes the place of the first half stitch.



Chains
These are made with two shuttles and the knots remain in straight lines or curves. Because there are two threads, the tatting can be done in two colors. If both threads are of the same color, it will help - especially if you are a beginner - to have two different coloured shuttles.

Hold the end of the thread from the first shuttle between the thumb and index finger of the left hand, pass the thread behind the middle two fingers and wind it around the little finger. Allow the shuttle to hang loose.

Hold the end of the thread from the second shuttle together with the first thread between the thumb and index finger of the left hand. Make double stitches as before but around the thread from the left-hand shuttle. After the tug, which transfers the knot, the thread from the right-hand shuttle becomes the running thread and this is usually the thread, which has made any previous ring. The left hand thread is usually the extra one, and often this thread can be used straight from the ball of thread and so is not wound onto a shuttle at all.

Chains


Outcomes
There are numerous tatting website dedicated to this form of lace making. Each of these websites give tips and recipes for creating tatted lace as a finishing item or as a featured item. Below are a few images that illustrate both aspects.

Floral Mat.

Edging for a lavender bag.

Handkerchief Edgings.

Doiley

Runner.

Coffee Table Mat.

Stars Tattered Collar, 4th of July Costume, Tattered Ruff.

Tattered Lace Bracelet Hand Stitched Cuff.

Tattered lace wedding card.

From the Gilded Dragonfly - GHOST - oak tattered lace steampunk gothic choker


References:
[1]Creative Crafts Encyclopedia, Octopus Books, London (1977).
[2] Macramé and Tatting, Octopus Books, London (1973).

Saturday, March 4, 2017

Figured Weaves – Piqué Weave[1]
Art Resource

Marie-Therese Wisniowski

Preamble
This is the sixty-second post in the "Art Resource" series, specifically aimed to construct an appropriate knowledge base in order to develop an artistic voice in ArtCloth.

Other posts in this series are:
Glossary of Terms
Units Used in Dyeing and Printing of Fabrics
Occupational, Health & Safety
A Brief History of Color
The Nature of Color
Psychology of Color
Color Schemes
The Naming of Colors
The Munsell Color Classification System
Methuen Color Index and Classification System
The CIE System
Pantone - A Modern Color Classification System
Optical Properties of Fiber Materials
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part I
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part II
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part III
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part IV
General Properties of Fiber Polymers and Fibers - Part V
Protein Fibers - Wool
Protein Fibers - Speciality Hair Fibers
Protein Fibers - Silk
Protein Fibers - Wool versus Silk
Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Cotton
Cellulosic Fibers (Natural) - Linen
Other Natural Cellulosic Fibers
General Overview of Man-Made Fibers
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Viscose
Man-Made Cellulosic Fibers - Esters
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Nylon
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Polyester
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Acrylic and Modacrylic
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Olefins
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Elastomers
Man-Made Synthetic Fibers - Mineral Fibers
Man Made Fibers - Other Textile Fibers
Fiber Blends
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part I
From Fiber to Yarn: Overview - Part II
Melt-Spun Fibers
Characteristics of Filament Yarn
Yarn Classification
Direct Spun Yarns
Textured Filament Yarns
Fabric Construction - Felt
Fabric Construction - Nonwoven fabrics
A Fashion Data Base
Fabric Construction - Leather
Fabric Construction - Films
Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins
Fabric Construction – Foams and Poromeric Material
Knitting
Hosiery
Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns
Weaving and the Loom
Similarities and Differences in Woven Fabrics
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part I)
The Three Basic Weaves - Plain Weave (Part II)
The Three Basic Weaves - Twill Weave
The Three Basic Weaves - Satin Weave
Figured Weaves - Leno Weave
Figured Weaves – Piqué Weave
Figured Fabrics
Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements
Crêpe Fabrics
Crêpe Effect Fabrics
Pile Fabrics - General
Woven Pile Fabrics
Chenille Yarn and Tufted Pile Fabrics

The Glossary of Terms, Timelines of Fabrics, Dyes and Other Stuff, A Fashion Data Base, Glossary of Colors, Dyes, Inks, Pigments and Resins, Glossary of Fabrics, Fibers, Finishes, Garments and Yarns and Glossary of Art, Artists, Art Motifs and Art Movements have been updated in order to better inform your art practice.

If you find any post on this blog site useful, you can save it or copy and paste it into your own "Word" document etc. for your future reference. For example, Safari allows you to save a post (e.g. click on "File", click on "Print" and release, click on "PDF" and then click on "Save As" and release - and a PDF should appear where you have stored it). Safari also allows you to mail a post to a friend (click on "File", and then point cursor to "Mail Contents On This Page" and release). Either way, this or other posts on this site may be a useful Art Resource for you.

The Art Resource series will be the first post in each calendar month. Remember - these Art Resource posts span information that will be useful for a home hobbyist to that required by a final year University Fine-Art student and so undoubtedly, some parts of any Art Resource post may appear far too technical for your needs (skip over those mind boggling parts) and in other parts, it may be too simplistic with respect to your level of knowledge (ditto the skip). The trade-off between these two extremes will mean that Art Resource posts will hopefully be useful in parts to most, but unfortunately may not be satisfying to all!


Piqué Weave
Piqué or cord weave is made on a loom with a dobby attachment that provides for 20 or 30 different interlacing arrangements if the warp yarns. This means that the figure must be completed with the insertion of 20 or 30 filling yarns.

Microscopic picture of piqué weaving.

Piqué weave is characterized by ridges called wales or cords that are held up by floats on the back of the fabric. The wales vary in width.

White piqué blouse.

Widewhale piqué (0.25 inches) is woven with 20 or more warp yarns in the face of the wale and then two warps in between. Pinwale piqué (0.05 inches) is a six-warp wale with two consecutive filling yarns floating across the back of the odd number wales and then woven in the face of the even-numbered wales. The next two consecutive picks alternate with the first two by floating across the back of the even numbered wales.

Six-warp pinwale piqué.

Front: Pinwale piqué (65% polyester and 35% cotton).

Back: Pinwale piqué (65% polyester and 35% cotton).

Light pink pinwale dress.

Stuffer yarns are laid under the ridges in the better quality fabrics to emphasize the roundness of the quilted effect and their presence or absence is one way of determining quality. The stuffer yarns are not woven in the main part of the fabric and may be easily removed when analyzing a swatch of fabric.

In place of warp or weft yarns, an additional third yarn may also be used as a binder. Stuffer yarns, which are straight, can be used to increase fiber volume fraction and in-plane strength. If the binder yarns interlace vertically between fabric layers, the structure is called orthogonal weave.


Characteristics of Cord and Piqué Fabrics
The word “piqué” comes from the French word meaning “quilted” and the raised effect in these fabrics is similar to that in quilts. Cords or wales usually run in the lengthwise direction with the exception of birdseye and bulleye piqués in which the cords run crosswise.

100% lavender cotton birdseye piqué.

100% cotton, Princess bullseye piqué.

Cord fabrics have a definite right and wrong side. The fabric tears more easily in the lengthwise direction. If there are stuffer yarns, it is especially difficult to tear the fabric crosswise. In wear, the floats on the wrong side usually wear out first.

Piqué: A knit fabric with a waffle-weave appearance, piqué has distinct sides. The outside resembles a honeycomb or waffle and the underside is flat and smooth.

Piqué fabrics are more resistant to wrinkling and have more body than flat fabrics, and for these reasons they have less need to be given a resin finish for wash-and-wear. Piqué fabrics should be ironed on the wrong side because the beauty of the fabric is in the roundness of the cord and pressing on the right side will flatten it.

Dress in cotton piqué.


Fabric Description
Fabrics in this group are called piqué with the exception of a wide-wale fabric called Bedford cord. Cord weave may be combined with other weaves to produce such fabrics as seersucker piqué, crepe piqué and novelty piqué.

Vintage 1960s seersucker dress blue white plaid Princess sheath medium - removable white piqué collar snaps on over self-fabric collar.

Piqué crepe colorblock dress.

Bedford cord is a heavy fabric with warp cords. It is used for slacks, trousers, uniforms and upholstery. It is made with carded cotton yarns, woolen or worsted yarns, rayon or acetate or combinations. The wales are wide and stuffer yarns are usually present.

Bedford cord jacket.

Piqué is lighter in weight than Bedford cord and has a narrower wale. The better quality fabrics are made with long-staple, combed, mercerized yarns and have one stuffer yarn. The carded yarn piqués are made without the stuffer and are sometimes printed.

100% Cotton yarn dyed stripe piqué fabric mesh fabric.

Birdseye piqué has a tiny “eye-shaped” design formed by the wavy arrangement of the cords and by use of stuffer yarns. Bullseye piqué is made like birdseye but has a much larger design. Both these fabrics have crosswise rather than lengthwise cords. They are used for collars and cuffs, hats and dresses.

Birdseye piqué cotton golf cap.

Some fabrics that are called piqué such as waffle piqué, embossed piqué and dimity piqué are not made by the piqué weave.

Vintage 60s white cotton sun dress ~ full skirt ~ waffle piqué.

Also the birdseye design in diaper cloth is not made by the piqué weave but is made by satin floats.

Cotton birdseye diaper cloth.


Reference:
[1] N. Hollen and J. Saddler, Textiles, 3rd Edition, MacMillan Company, London (1968).